Biyoyararlılık Rehberi: Mineraller

Bioavailability Guide: Minerals

As endurance athletes, we know the importance of a balanced and regular diet, but since we spend a lot of resources in our training, we also get help from certain supplements. Although the amount of the supplement we want to take is written on the supplement boxes/packages, it is usually not clearly written in what form it is offered. Most supplements come in the form of a specific molecule rather than in pure form. You can learn this form by reading the "contents" or "ingredients" section on the back of the package.

Each form in which our supplements are presented has different degrees of bioavailability. Bioavailability refers to the amount and rate at which a molecule passes into the blood after administration. Bioavailability of a molecule; It depends on factors such as its absorption and whether it is metabolized in the liver. Our preference for highly bioavailable forms is in daily supplements as well as in electrolyte sources, salt tablets, etc. that we consume during exercise. is also important. In this article, we will try to list highly bioavailable forms of mineral and vitamin supplements.


Calcium is an important mineral for bone and dental health. In addition, it also plays a role in muscle control and coordination of muscle contractions. Getting enough calcium is important for endurance athletes. If we use calcium supplements outside our daily diet, we should make sure that we choose a form with high bioavailability. The most bioavailable form of calcium is calcium lysine. However, it is not easy to find this form in daily supplements. Therefore, we can turn to calcium carbonate, another form with high bioavailability, although not as much as calcium lysine. In order to get maximum efficiency from calcium carbonate, it is recommended to consume it with meals. Although calcium citrate is less than calcium lysine and calcium carbonate, it is a highly bioavailable form and can be taken alone, unlike calcium carbonate.

It is necessary to have sufficient vitamin D in your body for the absorption of calcium. Therefore, it would be better for us to choose calcium supplements containing vitamin D.

In summary, check whether the products you buy contain calcium lysine, calcium carbonate or calcium citrate.


Magnesium is an important mineral that plays a role in the energy production required during muscle contraction and relaxation. Magnesium supplements taken during exercise can prevent muscle cramps. There are many types of magnesium supplements on the market. Magnesium oxide, one of the most common of these, is unfortunately a form with low bioavailability. In addition, since this form also has laxative effects, taking it during exercise may cause motility in your intestines.

Another form, magnesium citrate, is also widely available and has high bioavailability. In addition, its laxative effects are much lower than magnesium oxide. Magnesium glycinate is also a highly bioavailable form and has a calming effect. It is a good option for those suffering from insomnia and anxiety. Magnesium pidolate, on the other hand, is a form with high bioavailability but is difficult to find on the market.

In short, it would be good to choose products containing magnesium pidolate, magnesium glycinate or magnesium citrate.


Potassium is an important mineral for those involved in endurance sports. Potassium is a substance that maintains the body's fluid balance and ensures the normal functioning of muscle and nerve functions. During exercise, the body can lose water and electrolytes. Loss of potassium can cause problems such as muscle weakness, cramps and irregular heartbeat. Therefore, it is important for those who do endurance sports to have adequate potassium intake.

The popular and highly bioavailable form of potassium is potassium gluconate. Another common form is potassium citrate. Both of these forms are effective in raising low potassium levels in the blood.

When potassium is taken in excess of the body's needs, it is removed from the body by the kidneys. But during long endurance activities (for example, 100-mile running races), the kidneys may start to work less well or even stop working altogether in some cases. In such cases, excessive intake of potassium may damage heart functions because it cannot be excreted from the body.

In summary, when choosing a product for potassium supplementation, we can check whether it contains potassium gluconate or potassium citrate.


Sodium is a mineral that we rarely need as a supplement in daily life. In fact, we avoid consuming too much because it causes high blood pressure. However, since sodium loss may occur through sweating during long-term exercises, it is important to take sodium supplements during activity. Sodium is usually found in supplements as sodium chloride (table salt) or sodium bicarbonate, and both forms have high bioavailability.

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